March 13, 2022


All You Need To Know About Epilepsy

Epilepsy doesn’t discriminate, and it can affect both men and women of all races, ages, and different backgrounds. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting brain activities, causing seizures, unusual sensations, and loss of awareness. Epilepsy in San Jose is treated by experts in neurology who offer comprehensive care to reduce the severity of seizures. Here is everything you should know about epilepsy.

What is epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in the brain that affects a large number of people worldwide. It causes seizures which are involuntary movements involving the entire body or a part of the body and can be accompanied by control of bladder or bowel function and unconsciousness.

Seizure symptoms vary individually. Some people stare for a few seconds while others repeatedly twitch their legs or arms. People with epilepsy usually have more physical injuries related to seizures. Also, the risk of death for epileptic people is higher, but the causes of these deaths, such as burns, drowning, and falls, are preventable.

Epilepsy diagnosis

Epilepsy is not diagnosed in one appointment; you have to be patient. Different disorders can cause behavioral changes and can be mistaken for epilepsy. To get the correct diagnosis of epilepsy, your doctor will order a complete blood count and rule out all conditions that can cause seizures.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is commonly used in diagnosing epilepsy. Your doctor places electrodes on your scalp, and you will be asked to perform a task so that a record of electrical activities going on in your brain can be taken. Sometimes tests can be done during sleep. Changes in normal brain waves indicate a sign of epilepsy. Other imaging tests like MRI, CT scans, and positron emission tomography reveal tumors causing seizures.


The first treatment approach is an anti-seizure medication. They help in reducing the severity and frequency of seizures. They are not a cure for epilepsy and cannot stop a seizure in progress. The stomach absorbs the medication, and it travels through the blood to the brain. It hijacks the neurotransmitters reducing the electrical activity that causes seizures.

Surgery can also be an option if medications don’t work. Resection is the most common type of surgery used to remove a part of the brain causing seizures. During the surgery, you will be kept awake so that the doctors can talk to you to avoid removing a part of the brain that controls your speech, vision, hearing, and movements.

Another surgery called multiple subpial transections is done if the brain area is too big to remove. The neurosurgeon makes an incision in the brain to disturb the nerve pathway to stop the seizures from spreading. After surgery, you can stop taking the antiseizure medications completely.

Having epilepsy can be very stressful because you are always afraid that you can get injured when you have a seizure episode. But with proper medication or surgery, you can live a happy life. South Valley Neurology offers treatment plans for epilepsy to help you get your normal life back. Call them today and book an appointment online.  

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All You Need to Know About Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

In the world of spine surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been gaining popularity in recent years. MIS is a surgical procedure that uses smaller incisions than traditional open spine surgery. This results in minor tissue damage, blood loss, and scarring. In addition, patients often experience a shorter recovery time. If you’re in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, find dependable specialists in modern procedures. A suitable Pittsburgh board-certified orthopedic spine surgeon will customize the proper treatment for your medical needs.

What is Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery?

Spine surgery is usually an open procedure, meaning it requires a large incision in the patient’s back. MIS spine surgery uses smaller incisions designed to minimize damage to the surrounding tissue. The surgeon makes small openings in critical locations of the spine. Then they insert instruments and other tools through these openings to perform surgery directly on the spinal column.

How Can I Benefit From Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery?

Minimally invasive surgery is becoming incredibly popular in many areas of medicine. The benefits are numerous, but perhaps the most significant advantage of MIS is the recovery time involved following surgery. 

On average, patients have a shorter recovery time after MIS procedures than traditional open surgery. Many patients return to their normal activities much faster, such as work and exercise.

Who is the Best Candidate for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery?

It is important to note that while some patients may be ideal candidates for MIS spine surgery, not all patients are good candidates. The best way to determine whether or not you are a candidate for minimally invasive back surgery is through an initial consultation with your surgeon. With this information in hand, you can discuss the risks and benefits of MIS vs. traditional open surgery.

What Conditions can Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Treat?

Minimally invasive spine surgery is used to treat several different conditions related to the spine, including:

  • Back pain
  • Herniated discs
  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Scoliosis
  • Arthritis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Compression fractures
  • Bone spurs

Types of Minimally Invasive Surgeries


This is the procedure performed to relieve pressure on the nerve root. The surgeon makes an opening in one or more vertebrae and associated disc space. They then use instruments to remove portions of the bones and create a tunnel toward the affected nerve.


This procedure aims to relieve pressure or discomfort on the spinal cord. It involves removing bony tissue along the back of the neck called the lamina. A minimally invasive laminectomy uses smaller incisions than traditional open spine surgery, making it easier for surgeons to access and remove appropriate portions of the vertebrae.


A microdiscectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that removes a herniated disc. The surgeon makes small incisions to access an injured disc during this surgery. Then they perform the appropriate discectomy or remove part of the damaged disc tissue. This type of surgery is often used to relieve pain that radiates into the leg.

If you or someone in your life is experiencing chronic back pain, it’s essential to consult a spine surgeon. In addition to traditional open surgery that involves large incisions and significant recovery time, minimally invasive spine surgery may be an option for some patients. Foraminotomies are an MIS procedure that removes pressure from the nerve root while laminectomies relieve pressure on the spinal cord.

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All You Should Know About Endodontic Re-Treatment

Sometimes you can get a root canal treatment hoping that the pain will go away, but it turns out that your problems have just begun. Even when the nerve has been removed, the tooth still doesn’t heal as expected. At this point, you worry that you might lose the tooth. After the root canal has healed, the discomfort you feel shows that the tooth needs Brooklyn endodontic re-treatment services. The dentists here performs more advanced treatments to save teeth at risk of infection. All you need to know about endodontic retreatment is discussed below.

Why does the root canal fail?

A root canal can fail due to unexpected development or structural abnormality. It can also fail when the previous treatment does not remove all the infections on-site or if the tooth gets infected again. Some symptoms of infection include pimples on the gum, tooth discoloration, and swelling. If you notice these symptoms, report immediately to your endodontist to prevent the infection from spreading to the other teeth. 

How does endodontic re-treatment work

The process begins with a full exam. Your endodontist administers anesthesia so that he can open the treated tooth. Your provider will remove the crown or filling to access the root canal material and check all the tooth parts to identify the cause of the problem.

After removing the root canal filling material, your endodontist cleans all the canals. With the help of special lighting and magnification, your endodontist will look for other canals or infections that require treatment. The infected part is removed, and the canal is treated again. The final step involves placing a temporary filling on your tooth to close it. You can wear a crown home after the process.

How to prevent root canal failure

The best thing you can do to prevent your root canal from failing is follow all your home care instructions. It will help if you do not chew or eat on that tooth immediately after treatment. If you want to bite on the tooth and it doesn’t have a permanent crown, you can break the tooth or cause some cracks. This can cause the root canal to fail.

Recurrent tooth decay can also cause a root canal to fail. Even when the tooth is not alive, its enamel can develop cavities. It would be best if you always practice oral hygiene around the treated tooth and its crown to prevent these decays from developing.

Another thing you have to do is to visit your endodontist regularly. The dentists are also trained to do a root canal procedure, but more complex cases are better off done by a specialist. An example is a tooth with curved or twisted roots. Specialists have advanced equipment to treat complex root canal conditions.

If you notice some root canal symptoms stated above, don’t hesitate to visit your dentist and they may refer you to an endodontist. Endodontists in Brooklyn City Dental are offering you a second chance to save your previously treated tooth with a root canal. Take action and call them today to get endodontic re-treatment.

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